FEATURED FIELD NEWS

Prepping for Soybeans…The AgriGold Way

Growers across the state are in full harvest mode, and pleasantly surprised with the amazing yields that are coming in. While most are still focused on the current harvest, it’s important to multi-task and be thinking about how to prepare the foundation for 2018 crops. It seems like these decisions need to be made earlier each year to help with logistics and managing proper timing of treatments as well as getting early buying discounts. So, whether you are driving the grain truck, auger cart, combine, or pulling a fall tillage tool, below are important questions to answer. Please contact your AgriGold Corn Specialist or agronomist if you need assistance answering these questions.

1. How will I prepare the soil for the 2018 soybean crop?

·     Corn stalks will be worked this fall to help breakdown residue.

·     Corn stalk won’t be worked this fall.

  • I will be utilizing a fall herbicide burndown.
  • I will be utilizing an early spring burndown.

2. How will I properly feed the next soybean crop?

·     I will be checking soil pH and applying lime.

·     Will soybeans get what is left-over from the corn crop?

·     I will apply removal rates of P and K this fall and or spring.

  • I will flat spread my fertilizer.
  • I will variable rate spread my fertilizer based off yield maps.
  • I will variable rate spread my fertilizer based off recent soil test.

3. How will I manage soybean weed pressures in 2018?

·     I will be utilizing a fall herbicide to manage winter annual weeds.

·     I will be utilizing a residual followed by…

  • An in-crop application of Round Up.
  • An in-crop application of Liberty.
  • An in-crop application of Xtend.

·     I will be utilizing an additional residual with my in-crop application for late flushes of waterhemp.

·     I will not be using a residual herbicide.

4. Will I be having my soybeans treated in 2018?

·     No, I won’t be treating my soybeans.

·     Yes, I will be treating with a fungicide & insecticide.

·     Yes, I will be treating with a fungicide, insecticide & nematicide.

·     Yes, I will be treating with a fungicide, insecticide, nematicide & inoculant.

5. How will I determine planting date?

·     I will plant beans once I’m done with corn.

·     I have a second planter that will be planting the same time as corn.

·     I will plant when soil moisture temperatures are appropriate.

Stem Canker

A few calls have been coming in across the area about sudden death syndrome, however with further investigations and diagnosis from the UK lab, all of these issues have been found to be stem canker.  If you start to see some foliar symptoms that look to be sudden death, use this news letter to help diagnose stem canker.

Fundamentals:

Stem canker is a fairly common disease in many areas where soybeans are grown, but may not be recognized as much as it occurs. Stem canker can kill whole plants or parts of plants. It can be confused with Phytophthora rot. Two different kinds of stem canker are known, northern and southern, which seem to be geographically limited to some degree but their ranges may overlap. Some soybean varieties can have resistance to stem canker. This disease often appears to kill or damage scattered plants, but in some cases large areas can be killed and yield losses can be significant.

Symptoms:

Early symptoms are reddish-brown lesions that appear at the base of branches or leaf petioles. These small lesions can develop into elongated, sunken, dark brown cankers that spread up and down the stem. Tiny black dots called perithecia (spore producing fungal structures) may appear on the stem singly or in clustered groups on plants killed by stem canker. Plant parts above the lesions may die. Reddish-brown discoloration may also occur inside the stem, and pods can abort. Leaves may develop necrosis and chlorosis between the veins that look very similar to SDS or Brown Stem Rot, however as with Brown Stem Rot plants affected with Stem Canker the leaves will remain attached after death. Lesions often develop at and remain darker at nodes, but may extend to the soil line.

Conditions and Timing that Favor Disease:

Prolonged wet weather, especially early in the season favors stem canker. Symptoms of often seen from mid-July to harvest, especially in susceptible varieties. Reduced tillage may also favor this disease.

Pathogen:

Northern stem canker is caused by the fungus Diaporthe phaseolorumvar. caulivora. Southern stem canker is caused by the related fungus Diaporthe phaseolorum var. merdionalis. These pathogens overwinter in infested soybean residue, and may be spread with infected seed.

Disease Management:

Stem canker can be reduced by planting resistant varieties with resistance to this disease. Delayed planting and foliar fungicides may be beneficial. Tillage may reduce disease problems in fields where this disease has been a problem. Crop rotation with non-host crops such as wheat and corn may help to reduce stem canker.

 

University of Minnesota Extension

Aflatoxin in Drought Stressed Corn

The 2017 corn crop is quickly coming to an end across much of Illinois and a topic on many producers’ minds other than low yields is the potential for Aflatoxin.  A historic drought and record high temperatures during silk and grain fill stages are certainly key criteria needed for the development of Aflatoxin.
 

What are Aflatoxins?  Aflatoxins are naturally occurring by-products produced by two types of molds: Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aspergillus flavus is the most common and often found when corn is grown under stressful conditions such as drought.  Aflatoxins are harmful and can cause several problems in livestock, most commonly a reduction in feed efficiency and reproductivity, suppression of immune system, and in rare instances, death.  The most abundant aflatoxin, aflatoxin B1, is a carcinogen. This raises human health concerns because aflatoxin can appear in the milk of dairy cows fed contaminated corn.
 

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established levels for Aflatoxins present in food or feed.  The following levels for corn are set by the FDA to maintain an adequate margin to protect both animal and human health.

Identifying Aspergillus Ear and Kernel Mold  Aspergillus flavus can be identified as an olive green or yellowish green powdery fungus on drought stressed corn ears.  The fungi survive on plant residue and produces abundant spores.  These spores are then carried by wind to infect silks and damaged kernels.  Short husks that expose ear tips are more susceptible to kernel damage from insects and weather, therefore more prone to infection by Aspergillus.   

Managing Aflatoxins in Corn:
 

• Scout fields prior to harvest for presence of Aspergillus ear mold.
• Set combines and grain handling equipment to minimize kernel damage and remove cracks, fines, and lightweight diseased kernels.
• Aspergillus does not compete well with other fungi when corn is above 20 percent moisture. Harvesting corn when moisture content is above 20 percent followed by rapid drying to at least 14 percent within 24 to 48 hours of harvest keeps further Aspergillus growth and toxin production at a minimum.  Corn that will be held long term should be dried to 13 percent.
• Do not store grain in trucks, combines, bins, or any non-aerated site for more than 4 to 6 hours. These conditions quickly escalate aflatoxin levels and deteriorate grain quality because fungal growth and grain respiration will rise quickly in high-moisture grain.
• The amount of Aflatoxin produced in storage is determined by storage conditions. The most important factors are grain moisture content and temperature. Optimum storage temperature for Aspergillus to grow is 80–90°F; optimum grain moisture content is 18-22 percent. Cool grain once dried to 35-40°F for the duration of winter.
 
Testing for Aflatoxin
 

To reduce financial loss through the Federal Crop Insurance Program, it is recommended to contact your insurance provider if there is a possibility of grain contaminated with Aflatoxin.  An insurance adjuster must collect grain samples believed to be infected prior to harvest and storage and send to a GIPSA (Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration) approved laboratory for testing.  Most generally the sample size should be no less than ten pounds of harvested grain and consist of subsamples as Aflatoxin is usually not distributed uniformly.
 
References:
 

Munkvold, G. et. al. 2009.  Aflatoxins in Corn. Iowa State University, University Extension.  PM1800.  http://www.extension.iastate.edu/Publications/PM1800.pdf

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AgriGold Hybrids
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St. Francisville, IL 62460
800-262-7333

AgriGold® and Design, AgReliant Genetics® and Design, AdvantageAcre® , We Know Corn, Corn Specialist, and Giants are trademarks and servicemarks of AgReliant Genetics, LLC.

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All orders and sales are subject to the AgriGold Terms and Conditions of Sale, which include but are not limited to the Limitation of Warranty & Remedy and Agronomic Zone and Planting Year. All Terms and Conditions of Sale are subject to change from time to time without prior notice. For the most up to date Terms and Conditions of Sale, see the Producers website at www.agrigold.com.

Monsanto Company is a member of Excellence Through Stewardship® (ETS). Monsanto products are commercialized in accordance with ETS Product Launch Stewardship Guidance, and in compliance with Monsanto’s Policy for Commercialization of Biotechnology-Derived Plant Products in Commodity Crops. Certain products have been approved for import into key export markets with functioning regulatory systems. Any crop or material produced from this product can only be exported to, or used, processed or sold in countries where all necessary regulatory approvals have been granted. It is a violation of national and international law to move material containing biotech traits across boundaries into nations where import is not permitted. Growers should talk to their grain handler or product purchaser to confirm their buying position for this product. Growers should refer to http://www.biotradestatus.com/ for any updated information on import country approvals. Excellence Through Stewardship® is a registered trademark of Biotechnology Industry Organization.

B.t. products may not yet be registered in all states. Check with your Monsanto representative for the registration status in your state.

IMPORTANT IRM INFORMATION: RIB Complete® corn blend products do not require the planting of a structured refuge except in the Cotton-Growing Area where corn earworm is a significant pest. SmartStax® RIB Complete® corn blend is not allowed to be sold for planting in the Cotton-Growing Area. See the IRM/Grower Guide for additional information. Always read and follow IRM requirements.

DroughtGard® Hybrids with RIB Complete® corn blend the refuge seed may not always contain DroughtGard® Hybrids trait.

ALWAYS READ AND FOLLOW DIRECTIONS FOR USE ON PESTICIDE LABELING. IT IS A VIOLATION OF FEDERAL AND STATE LAW to use any pesticide product other than in accordance with its labeling. NOT ALL formulations of dicamba or glyphosate are approved for in-crop use with Roundup Ready 2 Xtend® soybeans. ONLY USE FORMULATIONS THAT ARE SPECIFICALLY LABELED FOR SUCH USES AND APPROVED FOR SUCH USE IN THE STATE OF APPLICATION. XTENDIMAX® HERBICIDE WITH VAPORGRIP® TECHNOLOGY AND IN CROP USES MAY NOT BE APPROVED IN ALL STATES. Contact the U.S. EPA and your state pesticide regulatory agency with any questions about the approval status of dicamba herbicide products for in-crop use with Roundup Ready 2 Xtend® soybeans.

Roundup Ready 2 Xtend® soybeans contains genes that confer tolerance to glyphosate and dicamba. Glyphosate will kill crops that are not tolerant to glyphosate. Dicamba will kill crops that are not tolerant to dicamba. Contact your Monsanto dealer or refer to Monsanto’s Technology Use Guide for recommended weed control programs.

ALWAYS READ AND FOLLOW DIRECTIONS FOR USE ON PESTICIDE LABELING. Products with NemaStrike Technology are not registered in all states. The distribution, sale, or use of an unregistered pesticide is a violation of federal and/or state law and is strictly prohibited. Check with your local Monsanto dealer or representative for the product registration status in your state.

Consult bag tags for E-Z Refuge product herbicide options; only those labeled GT/LL may be sprayed with glufosinate.

Seed products with the LibertyLink® (LL) trait are resistant to the herbicide glufosinate ammonium, an alternative to glyphosate in corn, and combine high-yielding genetics with the powerful, non-selective, postemergent weed control of Liberty® herbicide for optimum yield and excellent weed control.

Agrisure® Technology incorporated into these seeds is commercialized under license from Syngenta Seeds, Inc. Herculex® Technology incorporated into these seeds is commercialized under license from Dow AgroSciences LLC.

AgReliant Genetics® and Design, Advantage Acre® and Design, AgriShield®, and AgriGold® and Design are registered trademarks of AgReliant Genetics, LLC. Agrisure®, Agrisure Artesian®, Artesian, Agrisure Duracade®, Agrisure Viptera® and E-Z Refuge® are trademarks of a Syngenta Group Company. Acceleron®, DroughtGard®, Genuity®, NemaStrike, RIB Complete and Design®, RIB Complete®, Roundup Ready 2 Technology and Design®, Roundup Ready 2 Xtend®, Roundup Ready 2 Yield®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup®, SmartStax and Design®, SmartStax®, VaporGrip®, and XtendiMax®, VT Double PRO® and VT Triple PRO® are trademarks of Monsanto Technology LLC. LibertyLink® and the Water Droplet Design® are registered trademarks of Bayer. Herculex® is a registered trademark of Dow AgroSciences LLC. Respect the Refuge and Corn Design® and Respect the Refuge® are registered trademarks of National Corn Growers Association. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

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SEED PIRACY STATEMENT: Seed containing a patented trait can only be used to plant a single commercial crop from which seed cannot be saved and replanted. Examples of seed containing a patented trait include but are not limited to Genuity® Roundup Ready 2 Yield® soybeans, and Roundup Ready 2 Xtend® soybeans. Additional information and limitations on the use of these products are provided in the Monsanto Technology Stewardship Agreement, the Monsanto Technology Use Guide, and the Roundup Ready 2 Xtend® Soybean Technology Use Guide Supplement. U.S. patents for Monsanto technologies can be found at the following webpage: http://www.monsantotechnology.com